In the past, we believed that the first Americans crossed a land bridge from Asia to Alaska about 15,000 years ago and slowly spread south. We know now that boats and coastal migrations allowed Native Americans to settle simultaneously in multiple locations along the western coasts of the Americas. We know that Native Americans may have numbered as many as 50 million at the time of European contact and that in the Mound Builders, the Aztecs, the Mayans and the Incans, Native Americans had complex, sophisticated cultures featuring large cities. Some Native cities like Tennochitlan, were as larger or larger as any European city of the same era. However, Native Americans did have geographical disadvantages compared to Europeans, which resulted in a smaller number of food crops and pratically no domesticated animals. Native American technology included impressive accomplishments in building and architecture, but lacked iron, steel or gunpowder.

The Americas were very, very different when the first humans arrived. There were 33 types of large animal (bigger than a human) living in the Americas prior to the arrival of humans. Examples include the mammoth (a big elephant); the glyptodont (an armadillo the size of an SUV); the dire wolf (a larger, more powerful version of that animal) and various types of saber-toothed tigers. All these animals die out by 10,000 BCE and the reason for the extinction (known as the “Quaternary Extinction Event") is still being debated. Some think the arrival of humans in the New World caused the die-off; that humans over-hunted and killed off the megafauna. Others argue that climate change was the reason. A combination of both factors is probably the best explanation we have at the moment.

For many years, the accepted theory was the Land Bridge Theory – the first Americans crossed into Alaska from Asia in about 15,000 BCE on a land bridge that existed where the Bering Sea is now and then spread southward. This would explain some of the earliest evidence of Native Americans in what is now New Mexico (the Clovis people). But it could not explain new evidence from Chile in South America (a site called Mount Verde) which shows humans had spread down to the tip of that continent by 14,000 BCE. A better explanation is the Coastal Migration Theory – that the first humans in America arrived here from Asia and the Pacific Islands by boat; that they made multiple landings on the western coasts of both North and South America and then spread slowly eastward.

We believe that most Native American tribes shared some common cultural traits. We think there was not much emphasis on private property and that land especially was held in common by the whole tribe. We think that power was decentralized and spread amongst many local chiefs or family leaders who had limited authority. We think that most Native American religions feature the belief that every object (living and unliving) in the world is occupied by a spirit and these sprits must be respected and dealt with. We think that women were respected and treated fairly. But… these traits are true of almost any culture that lives of the land in small groups (“hunter-gatherers”). For Native Americans in large, complex societies living in cities (Aztecs, Mayans etc.) – these traits were not part of their culture.

Look at the picture – the plant on the left is “teosinte”, the Mexican grass from which corn was developed. An ear of corn (maize) is on the right – see how different they are from each other! The challenge Native Americans faced in domesticating maize was tougher than the challenge of domesticating wheat, in which the version we now eat is pretty close to the wild version. As for the “Three Sisters” - Sister Bean fixes, or makes available in plant form, nitrogen from the air, Sister Corn provides the support for Sister Bean’s trailing vine, Sister Squash provides ground cover to hold moisture and maintain healthy soil environment as well as deterring animal invaders with its spiny stems.

The North-South axis we discussed yesterday was a problem for the Native Americans when it came to finding suitable animal candidates for domestication. As you move north or south, climate and conditions change dramatically (think of how different the climate of New York is from that of North Carolina). Animals that thrive in one area cant do well if you go very far up or down the continent. This means successes couldn’t be shared across the Americas – this is why the llama stayed In South America. Contrast this with Asia and Europe’s East-west axis – here the climate stays about the same across thousands of miles and successes like goats, pigs, cows and sheep can be shared from China to Rome. Of course, another issue for the Americas is the extinction event that killed off most of the suitable animal candidates for domestication: the North and South American megafauna.

It is important to see that Native American science was different from Western science. Some Native cultures had complex systems of writing and mathematics, used to calculate calendars and predict dates important for agriculture. Before contact by Europeans, many Native cultures had cities and large buildings. A group called the “Mound Builders” raised many large structures in North America; the Aztecs and Mayas had pyramids in Central America and the Incas in South America had stone buildings that displayed high levels of skill and talent. However, the making or smelting of iron was unknown. Metals like gold were worked but only for ornamental purposes. The wheel was used by Aztecs as a children’s toy but was not a part of any Native American toolkit. While Native American technology was well-adapted to Native American needs, it would not compare well with European technology (guns, steel, ships) of the same time period.

In North America, the Mound Builder civilization of the Mississippi River stands out. This culture flourished from about 900 CE to 1500 CE. They had large towns featuring sacred monuments built on top of earthen mounds. Their agriculture was complex and was based around the “Three Sisters” of corn, beans and squash. And we have evidence they had contacts and trade with many other tribes, including some as far away as Central America. Yet. By the time European reached this area in the 1700’s, all evidence of this culture – except their mounds – had vanished. Death caused by European diseases like smallpox was the likely cause of their decline.

At the time of first contact, the Aztecs had conquered most of the region of central Mexico. Many tribes in the area paid them tribute (in other words, the tribes got to keep their independence as long as they gave the Aztecs food and gold). The Aztecs had a complex religion that required human sacrifices, so conquered tribes also had to send captives to the Aztec capital for that purpose. It should be noted that the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan, with a pre-contact population of 300,000 was one of the largest cities in the world at that time. In the Yucatan peninsula, the Mayans had a complex civilization that had ruled that area for a thousand years, but was coming into decline at the time of first contact. The Mayans are known for their achievements in writing and mathematics, as well as their calendar system.

The Incas, like the Aztecs, controlled most of the tribes living in their region of South America – but unlike the Aztecs, their religion did not demand human sacrifice. Incan agriculture was based around the potato and had advanced irrigation, because of the mountainous nature of the country. Incan architecture was very advanced. The most well-known example is Machu Picchu, where the stone temples built by the Inca used a mortarless construction that fit together so well that a knife could not be passed through the stonework. The Incas communicated using a complicated system of knots on strings called “quipu” that has not been completely deciphered to this day.

Native Americans were more susceptible to diseases like smallpox than Europeans were. The Native American mortality rate from smallpox may have been as high as 95%. One method of calculation of Native American populations pre-contact is to take a reliable number (say, the number of Natives in Mexico counted in a Spanish survey of 1600) and then work backward by assuming that count represents the surviving 5% of the original pre-contact population. As you’ll see in the Guided Notes exercise, this method gives very different results based on small changes in the mortality rate. The most widely accepted population estimates have the Native Amerian population at about 50 million people (North, Central and South America combined) prior to the arrival of Columbus.

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Discovery Day 2 Resources

ActivityInca Children Primary Source Activity

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Recommended Book1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus

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Essential Questions

#1: What were the challenges facing Native American agriculture in the New World?

#2: What are the strengths and weakneses of usijng mortality rates to estimate Native American populations prior to European contact?

#3: Native Americans never used the wheel, except as a toy. Would you agree that the Native American civilizations were less advanced than European civilizations?

Discovery Day 2 Vocabulary

Land Bridge: a small strip of land connecting two large land-masses. Example: Panama is a land bridge connecting Central America to South America.

Llama: a camel-like quadruped native to South America and domesticated for its meat, fur and ability to carry small loads.

Megafauna: a collection of lage animals that inhabit a given area. Example: lions and elephants are African megafauna.

Mortality Rate: an estimate of the fraction of people killed by an event (usually a diease). Ex: the Black Death had a mortality rate of 33%, maning that it killed about one-third of all people it infected.

Nomad: refers to a lifestyle in which small groups are constantly on the move, going from one food source to anther with no permanent home.

Explorers Timeline

15,000 BCE: Evidence of earliest humans in the New World at Monte Verde in South America

13,000 BCE: The Clovis culture is evidence of the earliest humans in North America

200-900 CE: The Golden Age of the Mayan culture in Central America (the Yucatan)

900-1400 CE: The height of the Mound Builder culture in North America (MIssissippi River)

1350's: Black Death in Europe

1400's: Renaissance begins in Italy then spreads to Europe

1450's: The printing press is invented and spreads through Europe

1453: Constantinople is conquered by the Turks

1488: Bartolomeu Dias becomes the first European to sail past the southern tip of Africa

1492: Spain under Ferdinand and Isabella completes the Reconquista

1492: Columbus makes first contact with Native Americans in the New World

1517: A German priest (Martin Luther) begins a protest against the Roman Catholic Church, as the Protestant Reformation begins in northern Europe.

1519-21: The Spanish led by Cortez, conquer the Aztec Empire.

1519-21: The Spanish led by Pizarro begin a war of conquest against the Incan Empire.

1535: Jacques Cartier explores and claims the shores of eastern Canada for France, while searching for a Northwest Passage to the Pacific

1539: De Soto begins his expedition to the interior of America

1542: The Spanish implement the New Laws that make it illegal for Spanish landowners in the New World to use the Natives as slaves.

1552: The Valladolid Debates are held, one of the earliest attempts to end slavery and improve treatment of Native Americans.

1558-1603: The reign of Queen Elizabeth I, who will expand the power of England and fund the first English explorations of the New World

1565: Spanish permanently settle at Saint Augustine, which becomes the capital of Spanish Florida

1568: The Netherlands rebel against the Spanish king, beginning the Eighty Years War a long and expensive conflict that will nearly bankrupt the Spanish crown.

1585: Sir Walter Raleigh founds a colony on Roanoke Island, near present-day Manteo in North Carolina

1589: Henry IV begins his reign, unifying France and ending the religious wars

1605: Samuel de Champlain founds the first permanent European settlements in Canada (Port Royal in 1605, Quebec City in 1608)

1607: Jamestown is founded by English settlers on the coast of Virginia, in the territory of the Powhatan tribe

1614: Pocahontas marries John Rolfe and they travel to England (along with the very first shipment of Virginia tobacco) where she dies of disease in 1617

1619: The first Africans are brought to Virginia, originally as indentured servants but by the 1650's, as slaves

1620: Puritans seeking religious freedom found the Plymouth Colony in what will become Massachusetts

1630: Puritan leader John Winthrop creates the Massachusetts Bay Company and brings thousands of Puritan colonists with him to America. The city of Boston is founded.

1640's and 50's: The English Civil War pits Royalists who support the King against Parliamentarians who support democratic government

1650's: With the publication of Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes, the Enlightenment begins in England as science begins to challenge religion

1660: Charles II becomes King of England and the Restoration begins

1663: Parliament passes the Navigation Acts requiring most colonial trade to pass through English ports on English ships and pay English taxes

1675-78: Native leader Metacom fights a war of extermination against the English in the Northern colonies. Ten percent of all English men are killed in this conflict called "King Phillip's War" but the Natives are finally defeated .

1680: The Pueblo Revolt in New Mexico temporarily ends Spanish control of that region

1688: The Glorious Revolution begins in England replaces James II with William and Mary, who agree to a limited monarchy and the English Bill of Rights

1689: John Locke publishes his Two Treatises on Government, which introduces the concept of "consent of the governed"

1689: The Boston Revolt occurs as angry colonists revolt and capture Edmond Andros, the governor of the Dominion of New England

1690's: Spanish colonists found permanent settlements at Santa Fe in New Mexico and at San Antonio in Texas

1692: The Salem Witch Trials in Massachusetts demonstrate to the Puritans the need to separate their religion from their government

1701-14: The War of the Spanish Succession focuses the attention of England on Europe and the American colonies are left alone to solve their own problems. This is known as salutary neglect

1730's: Led by charismatic preachers, the First Great Awakening moves American Protestants towards a more personal sense of spirituality

1739: One of the largest slave revolts in the English colonies, the Stono Rebellion, takes place and is violently suppresed in South Carolina, near Charleston